Ancient tribe Vikings - Ancestry and origin
What is the history of the Vikings?
The Vikings, or "Northmen," were a people of plundering seafarers from Scandinavia, which set upon the coastal cities of Europe starting at the end of the eighth century A.D. From the year 800 on, they harried the coastal and river regions of France with increasing frequency, repeatedly conquered Paris, and destroyed Hamburg in 845. Their fleets penetrated as far as Mainz and Metz, Burgundy and on into the Mediterranean. Among the many successes of the Vikings, one can also count the conquest of Arab Seville, raids into Morocco, the Balearans, Provence, and Tuscany.
A group under Rollo settled in the Rouen region and founded the Dukedom of Normandy in 911. Other hosts settled according to their own plans in England in 866. Cnut the Great unified Denmark, England, and Norway under his crown. 1066 the Norman French conquered England. The Vikings had established a kingdom on the Island of Man in 820, which held until 1266. In the ninth century, additional small Norman kingdoms were established, e.g. in Dublin. The Faeroe Islands, the Orkneys, the Shetlands, and the Hebrides were already Viking ("Northman") in the seventh century. In 860, the Vikings arrived in Iceland and settled there permanently by 874, and reached Greenland around 981, America around 1000. Swedish Vikings pressed on into the Baltic region and Russia, where they founded the dominions of Kiev and Novgorod. The Vikings went down the Volga and through the Black Sea to Byzantium, into whose military service they then entered. The Mediterranean, with the collapse of Roman and then Byzantine naval power, became the most desired destination for Viking plundering raids.
From 1016 on, knights from Normandy entered into the service of southern Italian princes. Robert Guisscard conquered all of lower Italy and took as a ducal fief (Apulia and Calabria) from the Pope. Roger I. took Sicily and Malta from the Arabs. The Crusader States in Syria were largely held by Normans. The thin Norman upper class created well-organized states with High Culture in both southern Italy and Normandy, creating institutions (centralism, bureaucracy) that became models for European states in the Middle Ages.
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What does the name Viking mean?
The definition of the Vikings is often discussed. The Vikings were originally North Germanic peoples who isolated themselves in Scandinavia and thus developed not only their own culture but also their own DNA profiles. We refer to the Vikings as Normans, Vikings or North Germanic peoples but do not see them as a subgroup of the Germanic peoples, but as an independent people. This definition is supported by anthropological and social science. Other subgroups of the Germanic peoples such as the Lombards, Visigoths, etc. have not isolated themselves as much as the Vikings, so that no genetic differentiation has been discovered yet. Therefore the Vikings are differentiated as an independent ancient tribe.
Genetic indigenous peoples by iGENEA
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