Information that men can derive out of their Y Chromosome
As a man, a Y-chromosome test will show you where your paternal ancestors came from and to whom you are related on your father's side. The results of a Y-chromosome test can be used for numerous other projects. In a surname project you can find out whether you are related to people who have the same or a similar surname. In an origins project you can investigate the gene pool of a specific region. You can find out which families come from the same region.
The specific attributes of the Y-Chromosome
Analysis of the Y-Chromosome is used to research the paternal line.
The DNA contains the genetic information for every person. The DNA is packaged in chromosomes. The DNA encodes e.g. whether we have blue or brown eyes. Every person has 23 chromosome pairs. The 23rd chromosome defines the gender of a person. Females have two X-Chromosomes, males have one X and one Y-Chromosome. We have all inherited one chromosome from our mother and one from our father. Mothers always pass on one X-Chromosome. If the father transfers his X, a girl is born; a boy is born if the father transfers his Y. For this reason all sons of one man have the same Y-Chromosome. The sons of these sons have the same Y-Chromosome as their paternal grandfather and so on.
Origins Analysis (Haplogroups / clan father Adam)
What are your genetic roots? Does your paternal line start in the East, in Africa or in Europe? Who is your primordial father? Do you have Celtic, Jewish or Germanic roots? Do you descend from northern Europe, eastern Europe or north Africa? These questions are answered by a Y-DNA test.
A Y-DNA test tells you your haplogroup (your tribe from primeval times) and from which ancient tribe from ancient times (Celts, Vikings, Jews, etc.) your ancestors came. You also discover the area in which your profile is typical and where your ancestors lived during the middle ages (500 AD to 1500 AD). Depending on the genetic profile, unequivocal allocation is not always possible. In such cases, all Ancient tribes that come into question are listed. DNA genealogy also enables you to find 'genetic cousins', i.e., people with whom you share common ancestors. By exchanging information such as family tree records with your 'genetic cousins', you broaden your knowledge of the history of your family.
Along with researching your own origins, you can use your results to investigate the gene pool of a specific region. You can learn which families come from the same region, how closely they are connected and related to each other, and to which haplogroups and ancient tribes they belong. These results don't always need to be compared with recorded family trees, but can also be compared with historical sources. Was this region an Alemannic colony? Find out what traces of the ancient tribes left in the genes of the modern population. Perhaps your hometown is an unusual case in history?
A surname project is a great way to combine traditional ancestry research with DNA genealogy. In a surname project, an investigation of the biological relationship between men with the same or similar surnames is conducted. This is especially helpful if the common ancestor lived at a time in which surnames already existed, but for which no written records have survived. Over the course of time or owing to emigration, surnames can change so much that the common lineage is no longer apparent: Howery and Hauri, for instance.
A surname project enables you to find people with whom you share common ancestry and can exchange information (such as the family tree). Therefore, the information content of your family history quickly increases. In contrast, you can also exclude namesakes who do not belong to your family.
Starting a surname project or joining an existing one is free of charge. By participating in a surname project, you benefit from special rates for tests of the paternal line.