Ancient tribe Basques - Ancestry and origin
Where is the origin of the Basques?
In the Pyrenees, on both sides of the French-Spanish border, the Basques have developed one of the most enigmatic cultures of Europe. Many academics regard them as the oldest ethnic group of Europe and assert, that they were already living in the region before the Indo-Europeans arrived.
The first European examples of Homo sapiens, the Cro-Magnon man, settled large portions of Europe 40,000 to 2,500 ago, likely having come from the Caucasus. Descendants of this original European population can still be found in Basque Territory. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA by Cambridge University have confirmed it.
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What is the culture of the Basques?
The Basque language, Euskera, is autonomous and not related to any other in Europe. No common roots for this complex language have been found with other languages even in Russia and North Africa. According to Basque legend, the Devil spent seven fruitless years trying to learn the language and then just gave up.
Basque language and culture has been known for more than 2,000 years. It was recorded in accounts by Ptolemy and Sallust, and in evidence from gravestones, coins and in a mosaic. The settled region was somewhat larger than it is today, but by no means over the entire Iberian Peninsula, as had once been assumed. The Romanization of the region began at an early date, but was nonetheless only sporadic. Pamplona, for example, was founded by Pompey as Pompaelo in 75 B.C. It served as a strategic support base for the passage through the Pyrenees. There were many places in the Pyrenees and in the Cantabrian Mountains that remained difficult to reach well into the eighteenth century, and so made up self-sufficient cells, which have preserved the Basque culture.
What is the history of the Basques?
The Christianization started in the ninth century. The discovery of the grave of James the Apostle (Santiago) led to the creation of a new pilgrimage route over the ancient Roman highway through Basque territory. Although the pilgrimages had already reached their high point in the 11th century, the Christianization was not complete for another 400 years. Although Basqueland was seldom politically unified, the Basques were able to preserve the traditional tribal society and cultural identity, and only incompletely integrated themselves into the feudal structure. In the post-medieval transition period, they consolidated their customary rights. Cities and city guilds were uniformly subject to the king.
In the 10th century, the modern Spanish and French Basque territories constituted as the Province of Navarre the Kingdom of Navarre. Into the middle of the nineteenth century, the Basques in Spain had with their "Fueros" (special rights), certain autonomy under the Spanish crown.
In their history, the Basques had an independent state of their own, the Republic of Euzkadi, only once, from October 1936 to June 1937 during the Spanish Civil War. The historical kingdom of Navarre was not a Basque state in the proper sense of the word.
Genetic indigenous peoples by iGENEA
This is how the DNA origin analysis works
A Mucus Sample suffices to get a sample of your DNA. Taking the sample is simple and painless and can be done at home. Send the samples with the envelop included in the sampling kit.