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Are you descended from the kings of France and Spain?

The Bourbon DNA project. The search for descendants of the kings of France and Spain.

Since 2013 iGENEA has been searching for the male descendants of the house of Bourbon in a worldwide project.

A DNA test of three living members of this family determined the Y-DNA profile of this lineage. The persons tested where prince Axel of Bourbon-Parma, prince Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma and prince João Henrique of Orleans-Braganza. All three share the same profile and belong to the same haplogroup R-Z381.

The common ancestor of all three test persons is Louis XIII., King of France (1601-1643). Given the correspondence, it is safe to assume that this is the profile of all French Kings since Louis XIII.

The DNA profile of the kings of France and Spain

DYS#   393 390 19 391 385a 385b 426 388
Allele   13 23 14 10 11 14 12 12
DYS#   439 389-1 392 389-2 458 459 455 454
Allele   12 13/14 13 29/30 18 9,10 11 11
DYS#   447 437 448 449 464 460 GATA H4 YCAII
Allele   25 15 19 28/29 15,15,16,16 12 12 19,23
DYS#   456 607 576 570 724/CDY 442 438 635
Allele   17 19 16 16/17 35,38/39/40 18 12 23

The iGENEA origins analysis

Based on the profile of 38 markers, the institute for origins analysis, iGENEA, analysed the origin of the French kings.

The Royal lineage descends from Haplogroup R-M269. The haplogroup R-M269 arose about 9.500 years ago in the surrounding area of the Black Sea. The migration of this haplogroup into Europe started at the earliest with the spread of agriculture 7.000 BC. It is very probable that it is also connected to the Indoeuropeans who spread over Europe a little later in several waves of migrations. The subgroup R-Z381 can be found above all in North-Western Europe and is typical for the regions the Bourbons originate.

Ancient tribe and region of origin:
The French kings are descended from the Capetians, a Frankish aristocratic family from whom the Sun King, Louis XIV, is also descended, for example. The region of origin of the Franks is located on the Rhine in the present-day west of Germany and the Netherlands. There is evidence to support that ancestors of this line date back to the 7th Century in this region. Hence, in the male line it is now the oldest existing dynasty in Europe. Frankish origin is confirmed by the Y-DNA profile.

Living descendants

Every French king since Hugo Capet (940 to 996), the progenitor of the Capetians, belongs to this family. That also applies to the kings of Spain, the former kings of Portugal and the former emperors of Brazil. Descendants still living today are:

- Juan Carlos I, King of Spain
- Prince Felipe of Spain
- Henry I, Grand Duke of Luxembourg
- Louis XX, Pretender to the Throne of France
- Duarte III Pio de Bragança, Pretender to the Throne of Portugal
- Prince Luiz of Orléans-Braganza, Pretender to the Throne of Brazil
- Carlos, Duke of Parma, Italy

Existing branches of the family:

- House of Bourbon
- House of Orléans
- House of Braganza:

Search for living relatives

The profile of the French kings is very rare. So far, there have been no close matches in the known databases. Consequently, a match with this profile is a very strong indication of descending from the Capetian Dynasty.

To verify the ancestral lineage of the above aristocratic family, iGENEA offers a free DNA test to all descendants in the male line.

Legends exist about children fathered out of wedlock by men from this family. For the first time ever, the opportunity to verify these stories with the help of a DNA test is offered by iGENEA. In the current project, we are looking for other living close relatives of this aristocratic family. To participate, order one of the following tests. We will refund the price of the test and you will receive a personal certificate that confirms the verified relationship if 35 out of 38 markers in your profile match those of the French kings.

Former tests

Louis XVI was the last king of France before the French Revolution. After he was disempowered, he was sentenced to death and executed in Paris on 21 January 1793. One of those present used his handkerchief to wipe up some of the King's blood. Remnants of this cloth are still preserved today and were examined for traces of DNA in 2010. In 2012, samples were obtained from the mummified skull of King Henry IV, who was an ancestor of Louis XVI and ruled France 200 years before him. The two test results were almost entirely consistent. The profiles belong to haplogroup G. As only few markers have been tested from the skull of Henry IV and the authenticity of the handkerchief is doubtful, the result of this study has to be considered less convincing today.

T H E  S C I E N C E

The Y-chromosome (the male gender chromosome) is passed on from father to son. Every son and men of the same paternal line have the same Y-chromosome. If the Y-chromosome of two men is the same, it means that they are related and share a common paternal ancestor. The extent of the match (number of common markers) can also be used to determine the approximate number of generations that the relationship spans.


Identification of ancient tribes by iGENEA

By Ancient tribes, we refer to peoples from ancient times who are defined not only by their own language, culture and history, but also by their own DNA profile. An origins analysis by iGENEA determines your Ancient tribe by means of your haplogroup and genetic profile. The result refers roughly to the period between 900 BC and 900 AD.

This is how the DNA origin analysis works

A Mucus Sample suffices to get a sample of your DNA. Taking the sample is simple and painless and can be done at home. Send the samples with the envelop included in the sampling kit.

Order test kit
Get test kit
Take samples

at home, simple and painless

Send in samples

with the enclosed envelope


online after approx. 6-8 weeks

Your origin analysis